Medullary breast cancer is ine of the rarest types which is associated with the adverse effect of mutation function of the gene BRCA1.It is primarily Invasive in nature. Medullary breast cancer is more commonly found among people who tend to carry these genetic-mutation factors. Unlike the other cancers, it creates a distinct border between the affected cells and the normal cells surrounding it. This is the greatest aid for the surgeons to clearly find out the existence of the cancer-cells. The name Medullary comes from its early findings. The experts felt the growth similar to that of the Medulla portion of the human brain which is soft and sensitive.
It starts from the root of the milk-duct and starts spreading to the other cells. They also exhibit the triple-negative-characteristics. They remain invisible to tests which are based on estrogen-receptors, progesterone-receptors and Her2/neu. It requires a unique type of combinational-therapy for its cure. The initial symptoms may not be very clearly identifiable, but with progressive time, it definitely shows itself in the form of a small 2-cm size soft lump. The known methods of diagnosis are mammography and ultra-sound testing. But the most effective one is the visual examination.
- When examined under high-precision microscopes, they can be seen as a clearly marked-boundary with the other healthy-cells. These cells remain a separate entity and do not enter into other cells
- They form a sheet-like layer. They are not as aggressive as the other cancer-cells which penetrate into the other healthy-cells.
- The symptoms also are revealed by the presence excess of a protein named p-53 in the body
- The most effective biopsy-method is called the Sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy. This uses a high-sensitive and advanced method which can determine the stage and type of the cancer-cell growth accurately. But this method has been proved to have negative impacts on the patients who suffer from Melanoma in addition to the Medullary-breast-cancer
The treatment methods are determined largely by the type of cancer-cells, the tumor-grade, hormone-receptor status and the HER2-status. The normal treatment methods recommended are chemo or radiation therapy, because the concentration areas of these cancer-cells are usually marked and limited to a limited region. It would be best for the patient to develop a detailed plan-of-treatment with her physician before the beginning of treatment. The starting procedure could be a simple-surgery which physically removes the tumor/cancer-cells. The amount of cell-removal and effective replacement methods can be best decided by the physician at the time of examination.
The next stage is Chemotherapy, which involves administering of anti-cancer medicaments either in the form of tablets or directly into the blood-stream.
The alternate method in this stage is the radiation-therapy. High energy radiations are targeted on the areas affected by cancer. The treatment cures the entire region of the tumor by destroying the cells from the root-level.
Once the surgery and therapy are complete, the patient is put under periodical check-up. Meanwhile she is administered healing medications for removing the side-effects of surgery and therapy continuously.
Tubular breast cancer derives its name due to the structure of the cancer-cell. This is quite invasive in nature and spread to the other regions. Women above the age of 50 years seem to be the maximum affected lot. But it is rare and witnessed only among 2% of the breast-cancer patients. When in initial stages, this low-intensity disease does not show any tell-tale signs, but when progressive, it might show visible lumps in the breast-region. The exact causes are not yet known to the medical-world though heredity is attributed as one possible factor.
Breast-x-ray clearly shows the presence of tubular breast cancer even in the early stage. The other method is obviously the physical examination. The latest method of ultra-sound scanning is more accurate than the other two and is being increasingly adopted.
The more conventional, but reliable methods include Core-biopsy and Fine-Needle-Aspiration (F.N.A). The former is carried out after administering local-anesthesia to the region from where sample-tissues are surgically-extracted. A laboratory-test will reveal the exact nature and extent to which the disease has taken over. The second F.N.A method involves usage of a simple needle-syringe system of extracting cells from the affected area. Then the sample sent to the laboratory for examination.
In some cases, this disease may spread to the arm-pt region and lead to lump-formations in that region also. Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy is carried out in this region. This test is for determining the relation between the tubular cancer and the lump-formation. It is done by taking out the cells of lumps from this region and laboratory-testing. If a relation is found, then the patient might have to undergo surgery in order to effectively remove all the lumps.
The surgical process as seen involves physical removal of the tumor from the arm-pit-region. It is called the Axillary-Lymph- Node-Dissection (A.L.N.D). The other effective method is radio-therapy. It involves passing of high-energy ant-cancer waves. The treatment period is around 3-weeks, with short-durations of the therapy every-day.
The second method of treatment is called hormone-therapy. The aim is to reduce/eliminate the cancer-cell supporting elements from the human body and then attack the caner-cells. Removal of Oestrogen treats the tubular breast cancer. This seems to be more side-effect free compared to the rest, though it is a better practice to consult the physician.
Chemo-therapy is yet another method of treatment for this cancer. When in the initial stage, the therapy takes over as the first method of treatment. It involves cyto-toxic drugs being administered to remove the cancer-cells, in the form of powerful dosages through injections. These drug-particles inter-lock themselves with the HER-2 positive-receptor. This receptor which is the growth-promoter of the cancer cell is prevented from influencing the growth of cancer-cells. In extreme cases, where the chance of cancer-relapse is high, Herceptin may be administered as a post-chemo-therapy Biological treatment. It is a powerful anti-body which takes care of de-activating the HER-2 hormones which are located in the tubular breast cancer cells. Biological-method have long lasting effects in controlling the recurrence.
Breast cancers types is classified by whether or not this starts inside the lobules or ducts, the internal organs reliable for breast milk development. There are 8 breast cancers that can affect women, in some cases even man:
Phyllodes Tumor, Ductal Carcinoma In-Situ, Medullary Carcinoma, Tubular Carcinoma, Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma, Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Mucinous Carcinoma, Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma
Phyllodes tumors in the breasts are usually rare, accounting for under 1% of most breasts tumors. The actual name “phyllodes”, that is obtained from the Greek words and indicates “leaflike”, describes that fact how the tumor tissue develop in a leaflike pattern. Additional names of these tumors are usually phylloides tumor and also cystosarcoma phyllodes. Phyllodes tumors usually develop rapidly, however they hardly ever spread outside of the breasts.
Even though the majority of phyllodes tumors are usually not cancerous, several are cancerous and a few tend to be borderline (between non cancerous and cancerous). All 3 types of phyllodes tumors often develop rapidly, and they need surgical treatment to decrease the chance of a phyllodes tumor returning within the breasts (local recurrence).
Phyllodes tumors may appear at all ages, however they usually develop if a woman is at her 40s. Not cancerous phyllodes tumors are often identified in a the younger age than cancerous phyllodes tumors. Phyllodes tumors are really uncommon in males.
How Phyllodes Tumors Develop In The Breast
Not like breast cancer known as carcinomas, that grow in the ducts (milk-holding tubes) or simply lobules (milk-providing glands) in the breast, phyllodes tumors begin outside the ducts and lobules. Phyllodes tumors grow inside the breasts ligament, known as the stroma. The stroma consists of the actual fatty cells and also ligaments which encircle the actual ducts, lobules, blood and lymph vessels inside the breast. It might be useful to consider the stroma because the tissues which “keeps all together” in the breast. Along with stromal cells, phyllodes tumors may also include cells in the ducts and lobules.
Indicators And Symptoms Of Phyllodes Tumors
The most frequent symptom regarding a phyllodes tumor is often a breast lump which you or perhaps your medical doctor may feel whilst checking out the breasts. Phyllodes tumor usually develop rapidly, in just a duration of couple weeks or months, to some sized 2-3 centimetres or at times even bigger. This kind of fast development doesn’t immediately imply the actual phyllodes tumor is actually cancerous; not cancerous tumors may develop rapidly, also. The actual lump is generally not unpleasant. When remaining unchecked, the lump can produce a noticeable pooch because it forces up against the breast skin. In additional sophisticated instances – regardless of whether not cancerous, borderline, or cancerous – a phyllodes tumor could cause an ulcer or even wide open wound on the breast skin.
Diagnosing Phyllodes Tumors
Just like additional less frequent kinds of breast tumors, phyllodes tumors may be tough to identify mainly because medical doctors do not experience them that frequently. A phyllodes tumor may also appear to be an even more typical kind of not cancerous breast development known as a fibroadenoma. A fibroadenoma is really a solid, developing lump of typical breast tissue which is the most typical type of breast size, particularly in younger ladies.
Two crucial variations in between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors will be which phyllodes tumors usually develop much more rapidly and also develop around 8 years later – inside the 40s instead of the 30s. These kinds of variations might help medical doctors differentiate fibroadenomas from phyllodes tumors.